For printed books, the earliest example I can find on my shelves (only a copy unfortunately) is the magisterial De Ludis Orientalibus (Oxford, 1694) by Thomas Hyde (1636-1703) which includes the earliest detailed descriptions in Europe of both Shahiludio Chinensium (xiangqi or Chinese Chess) and Circumveniendi Ludo Chinensium (weiqi or Go, but written as hoy ki by Hyde). I am sure my readers can go a lot further back than this though.

BabelStone über die die ersten Abbildungen chinesischer Schriftzeichen in Europa.