For printed books, the earliest example I can find on my shelves (only a copy unfortunately) is the magisterial De Ludis Orientalibus (Oxford, 1694) by Thomas Hyde (1636–1703) which includes the earliest detailed descriptions in Europe of both Shahiludio Chinensium (xiangqi or Chinese Chess) and Circumveniendi Ludo Chinensium (weiqi or Go, but written as hoy ki by Hyde). I am sure my readers can go a lot further back than this though.

BabelStone über die die ersten Abbildungen chinesischer Schriftzeichen in Europa.